Basic principles of most popular Ergonomics

2022-09-28
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Basic principles of ergonomics

1 ergonomics

ergonomics is a new frontier science. It originated in Europe, formed and developed in the United States. Ergonomics is called ergonomics in Europe. This name was first proposed by the Polish scholar jastlebowski. It is composed of two Greek roots. "Ergo" means "effort and work", and "nomics" means "law and law". Therefore, the meaning of ergonomics is "the law of human effort" or "the law of human work", that is, this discipline is to study the law of human labor and force reasonably and moderately in the process of production or operation. Ergonomics is called "human engineering" or "human factor engineering" in the United States. Japan is called "Ergonomics", or European name, transliterated as "Ergonomics", and translated into Russian“ Эргнотика” In China, the names used are also different, including "Ergonomics", "Ergonomics", "Ergonomics", "machine and equipment utilization" and "Ergonomics". In order to facilitate the development of the discipline, it is necessary to unify the name. Now most people call it "Ergonomics" for short. The exact definition of "Ergonomics" is a comprehensive discipline that takes the human machine environment system as the basic object of research, uses the knowledge of physiology, psychology and other related disciplines, and reasonably allocates the operating functions of human and machine according to the conditions and characteristics of human and machine, and makes them adapt to each other, so as to create a comfortable and safe working environment for human beings and achieve the best work efficiency

2 man machine systems

"man machine system" is a system composed of people and some machines, devices, tools, appliances, etc. to complete a work or production task. More specifically, such a system should also include environmental conditions. Therefore, man machine system actually refers to an indivisible whole composed of man machine environment. The scope of man-machine system is very broad, including simple and complex. For example, if people write in pencil, it is a simple man-machine system; Another example is that the crew drives the ship, the pilot drives the plane, and the driver drives the car, which are some more complex man-machine systems. In man-machine system, there are three components: man, machine and environment, and each component can be called a subsystem or subsystem. The machine subsystem has controllers and displays (there are many kinds of displays, including visual, auditory, tactile, etc.). People, when this subsystem sees (or hears, touches) the display of the display, it must decide how to control and operate. If it is necessary to adjust, it can be manipulated through the action of the human body. The whole man-machine system works in various environments. And the environmental conditions affect the work of each subsystem to varying degrees. It can be seen that in the man machine system, the relationship between man, machine and environment always interacts, cooperates and restricts each other, but man always plays a leading role. Therefore, in order to give full play to the role of man and machine, and make the whole man-machine system reliable, safe, efficient, convenient and comfortable to operate, when designing the man-machine system, it is necessary to fully consider that the actual operation of man's experiment and the data processing method conform to the provisions of the national standard gb/t 228 (2) 010 "indoor temperature tensile test method for metal composite materials" and the characteristics and functions of the machine, so as to coordinate and cooperate with each other to form an organic whole, Achieve the best effect of production and work

3 man machine systems design

people need certain machines or devices to complete a certain work or production task, but some machines or devices are suitable for human physiological function and psychological characteristics, so people feel comfortable and labor-saving when working, with high efficiency and safety. Some are not. Therefore, when designing the machine or device, we should consider the function of human body and human psychological characteristics as much as possible, and strive to make the parts that people touch when operating the machine conform to various factors of human body as much as possible. The human skeleton structure must be able to adapt to it, the muscle tissue can manipulate it, and the mental system can control it. At the same time, it is also necessary to ensure human safety when using these machines or devices. If these goals are not achieved, then all the expected results - accidents are likely to occur. This basic idea of ergonomics must be considered when designing machines or work spaces. Generally speaking, the design of man-machine system can be divided into six stages: (1) investigation and research; (2) Prepare the design specification; (3) Prepare the implementation plan; (4) Technical design and construction drawing design; (5) Model making; (6) Manufacture and identification of man-machine system. Although these design processes can be divided into sequence, there is a close connection between each stage, and they can also be interspersed with each other

4 deterministic response

when there are some stimuli or signals, people often respond according to their own experience and habits. This reaction is called deterministic reaction. In the process of this reaction, the central nervous system of people is relatively simple. As long as they perceive the stimulus, they can make a decision immediately without too much consideration and choice. In general, the response can be made within 0.14~0.18 seconds after the appearance of visual or auditory stimuli. Generally, deterministic reactions can be divided into two categories, one belongs to conceptual relations, and the other belongs to spatial relations. For example, different user-defined modes swing angle 018000, rotate from zero to the set angle, and then reverse to the initial position. Colors are often used in the design of various signals and charts. When people see these colors, they can respond immediately because they understand the meaning of these colors. For example, red means danger and stop, and green means safety and passage. These are all conceptual relationships. For another example, the words and sentences in books and periodicals are arranged from left to right and the lines are arranged from top to bottom, which is the arrangement adopted by horizontal printing. When we read, we should proceed in this order, which belongs to spatial relationship

5 anthropometry

anthropometry is a branch of anthropology, which mainly studies the types, characteristics, variation and development of human body through the overall measurement and local measurement of human body. Anthropometry can provide data and information about the strength that human limbs can exert, the activity limits of muscles and joints, and the static and dynamic dimensions of the human body (i.e. height, length of upper and lower limbs, etc.), and provide a scientific basis for the design and spatial layout of human-machine system equipment. Its significance lies in: (1) putting forward principles and standards for the design of mechanical equipment, workplaces and action types, so as to make the best use of time and space; (2) Make the designed mechanical equipment coordinate with the size, shape, activity and structure of the body, so that people can operate with labor-saving and comfortable, and have the highest accuracy, the most appropriate speed and the greatest safety; (3) So that the machinery and equipment can receive the maximum benefit

6 human response time

the response time of human sensory organs after external stimulation is called human response time. The simple visual reaction time of ordinary people is 0.2~0.25 seconds; The auditory response time is 0.12~0.15 seconds. Because the nerve transmission speed of human beings generally has an refractory period of about 0.5 seconds, the intermittent operation gap period requiring sensory guidance should generally be greater than 0.5 seconds, the complex selective reaction time generally reaches 1-3 seconds, and the operation reaction time requiring complex judgment and cognition is longer

7 operation reaction speed

the reaction speed of the human body is limited, which is related to many factors. As for the manipulator, its shape, position, style, size, operation direction and force situation will affect the operation speed. The tapping speed of human fingers is 1.5~5 times per second, with a maximum of 5~14 times per second. The movement speed of hand in the direction of horizontal 135 (equivalent to the direction of 1:30 displacement deformation measurement accuracy of horizontal clock plane ± 1% clock) or

315 ° (equivalent to the direction of 7:30 clock) is the fastest, and the number of hand shaking is the least; And the speed of other directions is slightly slower. Moving the right hand forward pushes things faster than moving from right to left, and moving from left to right is slower

8 human machine system standard

human machine system standard refers to system operation standard and human effect standard. The system operation standard has different items and contents according to different human-machine systems. For example, in the industrial production system, there are standards such as product quality, productivity, equipment utilization rate, product qualification rate, etc. Human effect standard mainly refers to human physiological and psychological reactions (such as heart rhythm, blood pressure, brain wave), work efficiency and adaptability. As ergonomics becomes more and more important in human production and life, the international community pays more and more attention to the formulation of standards in ergonomics. In 1973, with the support of the British Standards Institute (BSI), the international society of ergonomics held an International Symposium on Ergonomics in the UK, which was attended by 13 countries, at which many standards related to ergonomics were put forward. At present, more and more products and production system quality evaluation, ergonomics standards are listed as an important content

9 people's quality

people's quality includes genetic congenital quality and acquired quality formed by the accumulation of practical experience. The response of people to the stimulation of external conditions, that is, the actions they take, will vary according to their different qualities. That is to say, in production sites, the most fundamental reason for unsafe behaviors and harmful actions is closely related to human quality

10 human ecology

in the process of maintaining its survival, human beings gradually adapt to the natural and social environment. This adaptation forms a certain form of human beings, and there is a symbiotic relationship between human beings and the environment. Taking this symbiotic relationship as the center, the discipline that studies the structure and change process of human regional society is called human ecology. Its research scope also includes health problems closely related to human survival, public health, and related topics affected by biological environment, action environment, biological individual environment, etc

11 unconditional reflex

when external conditions stimulate people, people will form two kinds of reflex, one is unconditional reflex, the other is conditional reflex. Unconditional reflex refers to an instinctive physiological function born, that is, when the human body is stimulated, there is a physiological function that can be judged without the brain and instinctively make a reflex. Food is the most basic thing necessary for human beings to maintain life. Therefore, when people face the stimulation of food, saliva is secreted through direct reflection of physiological functions. This kind of reflex is the most basic automatic control method that is necessary to maintain human life

12 mental cause

all actions of people at work are completely controlled by the psychological state at that time. If the psychological state is abnormal, it may cause accidents or disasters. This kind of reason for accidents or disasters due to abnormal psychological state is called psychological reason. There are mental reasons of this kind

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