Learn about all the problems related to the recycl

2022-07-31
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With the rapid development of China's economy, the production of various types of electronic products continues to grow, which not only brings about a huge battery market demand, but also creates problems for battery recycling and echelon utilization

according to relevant statistics, at present, there are about 350 battery manufacturers in China, and the annual production capacity of various batteries is about 15billion to 16billion, an increase of 3.5% every year 200million batteries turned into electronic waste. Taking lead-acid batteries as an example, the annual output of waste lead-acid batteries in China exceeds 2. 5% six × 106 tons, while the formal recovery rate is less than 30%

at the beginning of this year, the spot market price of imported ore for environmental protection in Beijing was weak and stable; Some market prices in the main producing areas of domestic mines fell; Weak operation of billet market; Coke spot market is stable and strong; The shipping market rebounded strongly. The police cooperated with the police in Tianjin, Hebei and Inner Mongolia to crack a huge environmental pollution case. Wang, the "battery king" in Tongzhou, Beijing, specially purchases used car batteries. Almost half of the used car batteries in Beijing are recycled through his hands. The recycled waste batteries are directly sent to the underground lead smelters in other places without any environmental protection treatment. The concentrated acid in the batteries is directly dumped, causing serious pollution to the land environment of thousands of square meters. The police investigated and dealt with two black factories, arrested 19 suspect, including the "battery king", and seized 137 tons of dangerous goods

the disposal of waste batteries has caused serious environmental pollution and is suspected of committing the crime of environmental pollution. It is indeed gratifying to deal with it according to law. However, the prevention and control of pollutants is not only a legal proposition, but also an economic proposition. If the recycling of waste batteries is managed, collected, transported, disassembled, and then recycled lead refined in strict accordance with the technical policy for the prevention and control of waste battery pollution, the cost of the whole process of environmental protection treatment may be much higher than the value of waste utilization. Obviously, the crux of the problem is here. Who pays for the recycling and disposal of used car batteries? Lack of necessary capital investment, it is difficult to build a formal and closed treatment channel for used automobile batteries. Therefore, the emergence of Beijing "battery king" is the inevitable result of the long-term absence of waste automobile battery recycling management

question 1: what is waste battery recycling

recycling of used batteries refers to the recycling of used batteries. Lead batteries are the most used industrial batteries in China, and lead accounts for more than 50% of the total cost of batteries. Pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and solid-phase electrolytic reduction technologies are mainly adopted. The shell is made of plastic and can be regenerated, basically realizing no secondary pollution

question 2: why recycle used batteries

a large number of waste batteries are discarded in the environment. The acid and alkali electrolyte solutions in them will affect the pH of the soil and water system, making the soil and water system acidic or alkaline. After being biologically absorbed, heavy metals such as Hg and cadmium enter the human food chain through various ways and gather in the human body, causing human body deformity or change, and even death. A button battery can pollute 600000 liters of water, equivalent to a person's lifetime drinking water. A battery rotten in the ground can make a square meter of land lose its use value. Among the five substances that pose the greatest threat to the natural environment, the battery contains three

question 3: what are the hazards of waste batteries

(1) zinc manganese battery

the harm of zinc manganese dry battery is mainly caused by the possible entry of Hg, acid, alkali and other electrolyte solutions into the environment after being discarded. Heavy metal Hg can cause central nervous system diseases and is the culprit of "Minamata disease" in Japan

(2) button battery

button zinc silver battery is widely used in electronic clocks, calculators, hearing aids, etc. it is a familiar battery variety. The harm of such batteries is mainly caused by Hg, cadmium and silver. According to relevant data, the harmful substances produced by a button battery can pollute 600000 liters of water

(3) lithium battery

lithium battery refers to the battery containing lithium (including metal lithium, lithium alloy, lithium ion and lithium polymer) in the electrochemical system. It includes primary battery, metal lithium and lithium ion secondary battery. Because of its high cost performance, long storage life and wide operating temperature range, it is used in watches, cameras, calculators, backup power supplies, cardiac pacemakers, safety alarms, etc. This kind of battery is relatively harmless, and its recycling is mainly to recover the useful component lithium metal

(4) alkaline batteries

alkaline batteries include zinc silver, cadmium nickel, iron nickel, nickel hydrogen and other batteries. Cadmium nickel battery is the most widely used battery series at present, and it is also a kind of battery focused on environmental pollution. Cadmium is a highly toxic substance with carcinogenicity, while nickel is also carcinogenic, which is obviously harmful to aquatic organisms. According to the investigation of American EPA, the cadmium in waste cadmium nickel batteries accounts for 75% of the total cadmium in municipal solid waste

(5) lead acid battery

lead acid battery is the battery with the largest output and the widest use in the world. Sales account for more than 30% of global battery sales. The annual output of lead-acid batteries in China is nearly 30million kwh. The pollution of these batteries is mainly caused by heavy metal lead and electrolyte solution. Lead can cause neurasthenia of nervous system, numbness of hands and feet, dyspepsia of digestive system, blood poisoning and Shen injury

question 4: what are the current recycling modes of used batteries

under the current "production extension system", the recycling mode of used batteries is divided into the following three types: the producer is directly responsible for the recycling mode, the producer consortium is responsible for the recycling mode, and the third party representative is responsible for the recycling mode

the producer is directly responsible for the recycling mode

the battery manufacturer is directly responsible for recycling its own brand products, The reverse logistics management process is completed by building a self built reverse logistics recycling network, as shown in Figure 1.

for this mode, enterprises understand their own products, and the recycled waste batteries can be recycled to the greatest extent. Be familiar with your own sales model and sales volume in various regions, and can use your own sales network to quickly establish recycling sites. At the same time, producers can improve the performance and design of products through the feedback information of recycling treatment, and produce more environmentally friendly and effective batteries. However, this model has certain disadvantages, and the manufacturers' establishment of their own recycling network causes a great waste of resources. Affect the effective use of enterprise funds and restrict the development of economies of scale by small and medium-sized enterprises. Small and medium-sized enterprises produce relatively small amounts of batteries and have a single type. The cost of recycling will make small and medium-sized enterprises unable to make ends meet. Therefore, it is uneconomical for the manufacturer to be directly responsible for the recycling mode

the producer consortium is responsible for the recycling mode

this mode is a consortium organization composed of battery manufacturers. The manufacturers in the consortium jointly contribute to the recycling of waste batteries on behalf of the manufacturers, as shown in Figure 2. Since some small and medium-sized enterprises cannot establish their own recycling network independently, this model can make full use of the funds of all enterprises to establish more specialized recycling and treatment sites. It saves a lot of recycling and logistics costs, and allows manufacturers of all parties to have more profit margins

the third party is responsible for the recycling mode

the pressure of oil closes the valve and piston. This mode means that battery manufacturers pay a certain fee to the third party according to the type and quantity of batteries they provide to the society, and hand over the recycling and risk of waste batteries to the third party, as shown in Figure 3. When the battery is scrapped, it will enter the third-party recycler through the recycling system, and then the third-party recycler will transport the recovered battery to its own treatment center for treatment, or pay a certain fee to the local processor, so that it can carry out large-scale treatment of the used battery on the premise of meeting the environmental and legislative standards

this mode enables enterprises to have more energy to develop their main business and simplifies the organization. As a third-party institution, it can use funds from all parties to focus on the research on the recycling and treatment of waste batteries, and develop different technologies and square medium frequency fatigue testing machines according to different needs: 30 ⑴ 00hz is called the medium frequency fatigue testing machine method, so as to train employees and save costs. However, compared with self-supporting, this model also has many problems. Firstly, with the development of the industry, battery manufacturers will have a certain dependence on third-party enterprises, which is restricted and restricted by it. Some unequal contracts come into being, and the transaction costs that are not conducive to production are even more inevitable. Secondly, since the third party has no special laws and regulations to restrict and supervise, and only the self-regulation of the market, it is worth discussing whether waste batteries can be treated according to environmental protection standards

question 5: what are the ways of recycling used batteries

(1) heat treatment

Switzerland has two factories specialized in processing and utilizing old batteries. The method adopted by batlek company is to grind the old batteries and send them to the furnace for heating. At this time, the volatile Hg can be extracted. When the temperature is higher, zinc also evaporates. It is also a precious metal. Iron and manganese are fused to form ferromanganese alloy for steelmaking. The factory can process 2000 tons of waste batteries a year and obtain 780 tons of ferromanganese alloy, 400 tons of zinc alloy and 3 tons of Hg. Another plant directly extracts iron from batteries and directly sells metal mixtures such as manganese oxide, zinc oxide, copper oxide and nickel oxide as metal waste. However, the cost of heat treatment is high, and Switzerland also charges a small amount of special fees for waste battery processing to each battery buyer

(2) "wet treatment"

a "wet treatment" device is being built in the suburbs of Magdeburg. In addition to the characteristics of high energy density, good recyclability and good cost advantages of lead-acid batteries, all kinds of batteries are dissolved in sulfuric acid, and then various metals are extracted from the solution with the help of ionic resin. The raw materials obtained in this way are purer than those obtained by heat treatment, so they sell at a higher price in the market, And 95% of the various substances contained in the battery can be extracted. Wet processing can eliminate the sorting process (because the sorting is manual, which will increase the cost). The annual processing capacity of Magdeburg can reach 7500 tons. Although its cost is slightly higher than that of landfill method, valuable raw materials will not be discarded and will not pollute the environment

(3) vacuum heat treatment method

the vacuum heat treatment method developed by German Alte company is even cheaper. However, it first needs to sort out the nickel cadmium batteries from the waste batteries. The waste batteries are heated in vacuum, in which the Hg evaporates rapidly, and then it can be recovered. Then the remaining raw materials are ground, the metal iron is extracted with magnets, and nickel and manganese are extracted from the remaining powder. The cost of processing a ton of waste batteries is less than 1500 marks (now about 6345.18 yuan)

question 6: what are the waste battery treatment technologies

due to the "blood lead pollution incident", the state has stepped up to take relevant measures to control heavy metal pollution and eliminate backward production capacity, resulting in the shock of the lead industry and the decline of lead price. As the main body of the battery industry, the growth of the lead battery industry has slowed down, which has affected the whole industry to enter a sluggish period of development

"blood lead pollution incident" is caused by the fact that some enterprises in the lead industry have neglected pollution control and eliminated backward production capacity for a long time, resulting in lead pollutants produced in the production process flowing into the air, water and soil without treatment,

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